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What is the Preamble to the Indian Constitution?

What is the Preamble to the Indian Constitution? The ‘Preamble’ to the Indian Constitution is a brief introductory statement that spells forth the guiding goal and ideals underlying the making of the Indian constitution, as well as the source of the document’s power, i.e. the people.

The Preamble to the Indian constitution along with the constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on November 26, 1949, and went into force on January 26, 1950.

It is an important topic in the Indian Polity section of the IAS Exam. On that note, let’s learn about the history, components and objectives of the Preamble in detail. 

What is a Preamble?

  • A preamble is an initial statement in a document that defines the philosophy and purpose of the document.
  • A Constitution expresses the intent of its framers, the history of its construction, and the nation’s essential values and principles.
  • The following things/objects are briefly mentioned in the preamble:
  1. Source of the Constitution
  2. Nature of Indian State
  3. Statement of its objectives
  4. Date of its adoption

History of the Preamble of the Indian Constitution

  • The objectives behind India’s Constitution were outlined in Jawaharlal Nehru’s Objectives Resolution, which was accepted by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947.
  • Although not legally binding, the Preamble describes the goals of the Constitution and serves as a guide for the interpretation of Articles where language is deemed to be confusing.

Components of Preamble

  • The Preamble indicates that the Constitution’s source of authority is the people of India.
  • India is declared to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic in the preamble.
  • The Preamble’s declared goals are to achieve justice, liberty, and equality for all citizens and to encourage fraternity in order to safeguard the nation’s unity and integrity.
  • The date it was adopted is indicated in the preamble, which is November 26, 1949.

Key Words in the Preamble

We, the people of India: It denotes the people’s ultimate sovereignty. Sovereignty refers to the state’s autonomous authority, which is not subject to the control of any other state or external power.

Sovereign 

The term implies that India has its own independent authority and is not subject to any other external power. The legislature has the authority to establish laws in the country, subject to certain constraints.

Socialist 

The term refers to achieving socialist goals through democratic means. It believes in a mixed economy in which the private and public sectors coexist. The 42nd Amendment was inserted into the Preamble in 1976.

Secular 

The word refers to the state’s equal respect, protection, and support for all religions in India. The 42nd Constitutional Amendment, passed in 1976, inserted it into the Preamble.

Democratic 

The word denotes that the Indian Constitution has an established type of Constitution that derives its power from the desire of the people as expressed through an election.

Republic 

The word denotes that the people choose the head of state. The President of India is the elected head of state in India.

Objectives of the Indian Constitution

  • The primary objective of the Indian Constitution is to promote national unity.
  • The following factors contribute to reaching this goal:
  • Justice: It is vital to sustaining the social order that the Indian Constitution guarantees through several articles of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy. It is composed of three elements: social, economic, and political.
  • Equality: The term “equality” refers to the fact that no segment of society has any unique advantages and that all people have been given equal opportunities for everything without prejudice. Everyone is equal before the law.
  • Liberty: The phrase “liberty” refers to the freedom of people to choose their way of life, as well as their political ideas and behaviour in society. Liberty does not imply the freedom to do whatever one wants; a person can do whatever they want as long as they stay within the boundaries provided by the law.
  • Fraternity: The term “Fraternity” refers to a sense of brotherhood and an emotional tie to the country and its people. Fraternity contributes to the nation’s dignity and cohesiveness.

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